# Set operators

Set operators are used to include, exclude, or intersect data sets. All operators use sets as operands and return a set as result.

You can use set operators in two different situations:

• To perform a set operation on set identifiers, representing sets of records in data.

• To perform a set operation on the element sets, on the field values, or inside a set modifier.

The following table shows the operators that can be used in set expressions.

Operators
Operator Description
+ Union. This binary operation returns a set consisting of the records that belong to any of the two set operands.
- Exclusion. This binary operation returns a set of the records that belong to the first but not the other of the two set operands. Also, when used as a unary operator, it returns the complement set.
* Intersection. This binary operation returns a set consisting of the records that belong to both of the two set operands.
/ Symmetric difference (XOR). This binary operation returns a set consisting of the records that belong to either, but not both of the two set operands.

The following table shows examples with operators.

Examples with operators
Example Result

Sum ({1-\$} Sales)

Returns sales for everything excluded by current selection.

Sum ({\$*BM01} Sales)

Returns sales for the intersection between the selection and bookmark BM01.

Sum ({-(\$+BM01)} Sales)

Returns sales excluded by the selection and bookmark BM01.

Sum ({\$<Year={2009}>+1<Country={'Sweden'}>} Sales)

Returns sales for the year 2009 associated with the current selections and add the full set of data associated with the country Sweden across all years.

Sum ({\$<Country={"S*"}+{"*land"}>} Sales)

Returns the sales for countries that begin with S or end with land.

See also: