# Modifiers

Measures are calculations based on fields, for example Sum(Cost). You can use modifiers to change how the measure is calculated over the available dimensions. For example, you can have the values of a measure accumulate over one or two dimensions, or you can calculate the average of your measure over a specific number of steps.

## Which visualizations have modifiers

visualizations comparison
Visualization Accumulation Difference Moving Average
Bar chart Yes Yes Yes
Combo chart Yes Yes Yes
Line chart Yes Yes Yes
Table Yes Yes Yes

## Accumulation

The accumulation modifier allows you to accumulate the values of a measure over one or two dimensions. Accumulating values makes it easy to visualize how the effect of the measure builds up over a dimension.

In the following combo chart, the bars and lines accumulate over time.

A combo chart where the line shows the accumulated profit margin and the bars show the accumulated sales figures.

Syntax:

RangeSum(Above {\$M,0,Steps})

## Difference

The difference modifier allows you to visualize the difference between consecutive values of a measure over one or two dimensions.The difference modifier is useful when you want to visualize the change in direction of grouped data.

In the following bar chart, any drops in yearly profits over a 10 year period appear as negative bars.

A bar chart showing the profit differences from one year to the next.

Syntax:

\$M - Above(\$M)

## Moving average

The moving average modifier allows you to see the average values of a measure over a specific period. You can use it to filter out the action from short-term value fluctuations. You can change the number of steps over which the averaging takes place, depending on how strongly you want your modifier to follow the changes in your data. A moving average is commonly used with time series data to highlight longer-term trends or cycles.

In the following line chart moving averages with two difference ranges are shown, one with a 20 step range, and one with a full range.

A line chart showing the price of a product over a five month period.

Syntax:

RangeAvg(Above {\$M,0,Steps})